Using Content Analysis To Evaluate The Impact of Technological Development In Instructional Materials

G.P. Keiler, E. Galembeck


Textbooks are widely used as a teaching tool, and are considered very important in severaleducational environments, from elementary to tertiary education levels. Since the firsttextbook arose in the seventeenth century, printed books are the most popular format oftextbooks published. New technologies developed over years such as paper, ink andprinting hardware. These have made it possible to present printed books in even moreattractive formats. Moreover, digital technologies allowed textbooks to providecomplementary content, such as software, audio and video. Aiming to understand hownew technologies has impacted both textbook presentation and content, we run anexternal representations (ER) content analysis in a textbook chapter and on aneducational software (eBook), both about muscle contraction. The three editions ofBioquímica Básica textbook (1990, 1999 and 2007), written by Anita Marzzoco andBayardo B. Torres and the four versions of Contração Muscular software developed byEduardo Galembeck et al. were analyzed. The obtained results showed that the textbookhad changes in relation to typography (paper size, kind of paper and colors of printing),and to ERs presented (use of electronic micrograph and 3D models in the 3rd edition andthe exclusion of some images and graphs previously used). Regarding the ContraçãoMuscular software, there were several changes in relation to the visual aspect, such asimages and icons, and also code updates to make the software compatible with newtechnologies developed since the first version was released. Although technology hasdriven some updates in both cases, this happened in different aspects includingpossibilities to create a modern layout and cheaper printer services, in the case of thetextbook, and graphic design and software usability, in the case of the eBook. Thuschanging the way information is presented to the users.


Biochemistry eBook, Biochemistry textbook, muscle contraction

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