N.S. Santos-Magalhães, E.A. Bouton, H.M. de Oliveira


The advent of molecular genetic comprises a true revolution of far-reaching consequences for human-kind, which evolved into a specialized branch of the modern-day Biochemistry. The analysis of specicgenomic information are gaining wide-ranging interest because of their signicance to the early diag-nosis of disease, and the discovery of modern drugs. In order to take advantage of a wide assortmentof signal processing (SP) algorithms, the primary step of modern genomic SP involves convertingsymbolic-DNA sequences into complex-valued signals. How to represent the genetic code? Despitebeing extensively known, the DNA mapping into proteins is one of the relevant discoveries of genetics.The genetic code (GC) is revisited in this work, addressing other descriptions for it, which can beworthy for genomic SP. Three original representations are discussed. The inner-to-outer map buildson the unbalanced role of nucleotides of a codon. A two-dimensional-Gray genetic representationis oered as a structured map that can help interpreting DNA spectrograms or scalograms. Theseare among the powerful visual tools for genome analysis, which depends on the choice of the geneticmapping. Finally, the world-chart for the GC is investigated. Evoking the cyclic structure of thegenetic mapping, it can be folded joining the left-right borders, and the top-bottom frontiers. As aresult, the GC can be drawn on the surface of a sphere resembling a world-map. Eight parallels oflatitude are required (four in each hemisphere) as well as four meridians of longitude associated tofour corresponding anti-meridians. The tropic circles have 11.25o, 33.75o, 56.25o, and 78.5o (Northand South). Starting from an arbitrary Greenwich meridian, the meridians of longitude can be plottedat 22.5o, 67.5o, 112.5o, and 157.5o (East and West). Each triplet is assigned to a single point on thesurface that we named Nirenberg-Kohamas Earth. Despite being valuable, usual representations forthe GC can be replaced by the handy descriptions oered in this work. These alternative maps arealso particularly useful for educational purposes, giving a much rich interpretation and visualizationthan a simple look-up table.


GENETIC CODE, symbolic-DNA sequences

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